Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust
Technical Series Reviews - Page 02

Rocket Development with Liquid Propellants
A Brief Technical Overview

by W H J Riedel
Translated from the Original by Dr. JC Kelley

Softbound, 210mm x 297mm x 10mm, 156 pages
ISBN: 1-872922-32-5
Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust
PO Box 31
Derby DE24 8BJ

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84 photographs/diagrams

Reviewed by Graham White

Rocket development has not received anything like the publicity of, say, piston engines. This book helps fill that void. Based on a technical paper written by W H J Reidel in 1950 for the British, it offers excellent insight into German rocket development culminating in the V2. Starting out with primitive rocket powered cars in the late 1920s, the paper goes through the evolutionary development steps required for a successful rocket engine. Critical to the success of a rocket is the guidance system, this pare describes in fairly good detail the gyroscopes and steering vanes used in the V2.

For the rocket enthusiast I'd say this is a must read book. Number 7 in the Technical series, it is a larger format than the normal Heritage Trust books being 8-1/4" by  11-5/8" and soft bound. Profusely illustrated with photographs and drawing by the author, all German captions are translated into English.

As with all Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust books this one offers unbelievable value for money.

The Allison Engine Catalog

by John M. Leonard

Softbound, 215mm x 280mm x 15mm, 282 pages
ISBN: 978-1-872922-38-6
Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust
P.O. Box 31
Derby DE24 8BJ

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300 b/w photographs/drawings

Reviewed by Kimble D. McCutcheon

This book provides a broad and fascinating survey of Allison engines and products, covering nearly everything except proprietary (vehicle transmission and GM diesel engine production) and still-classified aerospace products. While it does not attempt to address every model where there were many variants (such as the V-1710), it makes up for the lack of such minutia by exposing the reader to many new concepts, projects and products.

John Leonard, a third-generation Allison employee and long-time editor/contributor of the Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust Allison Branch Newsletter, has combined his vast knowledge of Allison engines with pictures, drawings and information from the Allison archives to produce this very enjoyable work.

Chapter 1, Piston Engines, covers Allison's work on the Liberty engine, its variants and myriad gearbox concepts. In addition to specifications and historical précis of selected models from the V-1710 series, V-3420 series, and DV-6840, relatively obscure concepts such as fuel injection, remote gearboxes (some facilitating multiple engines) and turbocompounding are presented.

Chapter 2, Turboprop, Turboshaft and Propfan Engines, includes the T38, T40, T54, T56 (powerplant for the Lockheed Electra and C-130), and Model 250 (helicopter) series. There is additional discussion of several afterburning and recuperated models, as well as test rigs, gearboxes and work on supersonic propellers.

Chapter 3, Turbojet and Turbofan Engines, includes numerous series, such as the J31, J33, J35, J71, TF41, and AE3007. Also covered are various lift-fan engines, such as the Model 610 and XJ-99.

Chapter 4, Ramjet and Rocket Engines, features Allison's experimental work on the PD-37 ramjet and rocket motor cases. While these activities yielded no production contracts, they did equip the company to build propellant tanks for the Apollo Command/Service and Lunar Excursion Modules.

Chapter 5, Automotive and Industrial Engines, details the gas turbine components and complete engines Allison designed and built for numerous customers including the General Motors Research Laboratory, US Army, US Navy, and US Department of Energy. These engines were intended to power automobiles, armored vehicles, busses, locomotives, boats, generators and auxiliary power units. Many of these engines were recuperated. Some were aimed at extremely high fuel economy and low emissions. Several were multi-fueled; a couple burned coal and one even burned wood!

Chapter 6, Development and Demonstration Engines, is comprised of advanced-concept demonstrators used to investigate high-Mach missile propulsion, high turbine inlet temperature, cooled turbine blades, variable-flow turbines, advanced gas generators, advanced materials and variable cycles.

Chapter 7, Engine Concepts, looks at paper studies that apparently never reached the hardware stage. Of note was a two-stroke V-12 reversible diesel for airship power, a 9,000 hp turboprop, a 10,500 hp coupled turboprop, a two-turbine turbojet with an interburner between the turbine stages, a few recuperated turboprops, several lift fan engines, and a nuclear rocket engine that appears to have been intended for atmospheric use.

Chapter 8, Other Products, examines the components Allison has designed and built over the years. These include parts for WWI vehicles, marine and aviation propeller reduction gearboxes, steel-backed bearings, Roots blowers, various clutches, fuel cells, and a compact nuclear reactor intended to power a portable ammonia generator that would provide fuel for an army from air and water.

Some Allison Records:

The Rolls-Royce Spey
by Michael Hartley

Softbound, 295mm x 210mm x 8mm, 127 pages
ISBN: 978-1-872922-26-3
Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust
P.O. Box 31
Derby DE24 8BJ

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84 photographs/illustrations

Reviewed by Kimble D. McCutcheon

The Rolls-Royce Spey, which entered service in 1964, was arguably the first turbofan engine designed specifically for commercial use. It later was also used in military applications as the core engine was modified and enhanced. The Spey's predecessor (12,000 lbT RB-141) was initially envisaged as power for the three-engine de Havilland DH121. However, British European Airways changed the requirement to a smaller airframe, ultimately resulting in the 9,850 lbT RB-163-1, which was later named the Spey. Variants found numerous applications, including the Trident, BAC 111, Buccaneer, F28, Gulfstream, Nimrod, Phantom and Corsair. The Spey has been used in marine and industrial applications and currently holds the world land speed record. More severe noise rules and requirements for better fuel economy ultimately ended Spey aero engine production after 5,646 were built. Industrial and marine engines are still being produced.

Broad application of the Spey involved numerous changes to the basic design, and this book details the more significant ones. All Speys were two-shaft engines. Nearly all had 3, 4 or 5-stage low-pressure compressors, 11 or 12-stage high-pressure compressors, 2-stage high-pressure turbines and 2-stage low-pressure turbines. The TF41 had a 3-stage low-pressure, 2-stage intermediate-pressure and 11-stage high-pressure compressor. Industrial and marine variants have an additional 2-stage power turbine.

The book is full of development and technical detail, with at least one high-quality illustration or photograph on nearly every spread; most are in color. Another attractive feature of the book is its landscape format, which lends itself to the presentation of gas turbine images. This is the second such book produced by the Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust, the first being Fast Jets, which tells the story of reheat.

Among the intriguing details is a long description of the fuel control system, which broke new ground in terms of reliability, acceleration control, surge margins over a wide range of flight conditions, and accuracy. Lucas designed, developed and funded the fuel control system using control laws and parameters that were very different from previous engines. The design employed full-flow metering and spinning valves to alleviate problems with hysteresis and friction that had arisen in previous systems as a result of fuel contamination and specific gravity variations.

Similar rich detail accompanies the discussions of compressor, burner and turbine development, as well as the many modifications that were made during its service life.

Like other Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust books, this one meets high standards for its writing, editing, illustration and production. It would be a bargain at twice the price.

Sectioned Drawings
of Piston Aero Engines

by Lyndon Jones

Softbound, 420mm x 296mm x 5mm, 80 pages
ISBN: 1-872922-07-4
Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust
P.O. Box 31
Derby DE24 8BJ

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36 drawing spreads

Reviewed by Kimble D. McCutcheon

Born in 1924, Lyndon Jones trained as a flight mechanic after joining the Royal Air Force in 1942. While working on a wide range of aircraft both in the UK and elsewhere, Jones learned the basics of aeronautical engineering and developed a talent for drawing. After WWII he worked for Handley Page, Rolls-Royce, Gloster Aircraft Company, and Atomic Energy Research Establishment as a technical artist. From WWII onward he produced a series of sectioned drawings of airplanes, engines, steam locomotives, motorcycles and even cathedrals. Upon his retirement, Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust received custody of his engine drawings, which form the content of this book.

Each of the 36 double-A3-sized spreads features a sectioned engine drawing, a description, detail drawings of the engine internals and/or installation, and often a drawing of an airplane in which the engine flew. This is an outstanding reference for the engine enthusiast; it's not bad eye candy either.

Engine Drawings

Rolls-Royce Eagle VIII
Rolls-Royce Falcon III
Napier Lion XI
Rolls-Royce Condor IIIA
Rolls-Royce Kestrel V
Rolls-Royce Buzzard
Rolls-Royce 'R' Engine
Rolls-Royce Kestrel with Sleeve Valves
de Havilland Gipsy Major
de Havilland Gipsy Six
Junkers Jumo 205D
Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah IX
Bristol Pegasus XVIII
de Havilland Gipsy Twelve
Junkers Jumo 211 D
Rolls-Royce Peregrine I
Bristol Hercules XVI
Rolls-Royce Vulture II
Daimler Benz DB 601
Rolls-Royce Merlin XX
BMW 801 D
Armstrong Siddeley Deerhound
Rolls-Royce H Merlin
Allison V-1710-39
Wright yclone R-1820-97
Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp R-1830-65
Napier Sabre V
Bristol Hercules 100
Rolls-Royce Merlin 113/114
Rolls-Royce Merlin 130/131
Rolls-Royce Griffon 65
Bristol Centaurus 18
Rolls-Royce Eagle 22
Rolls-Royce Crecy II
Rolls-Royce Pennine
Napier Nomad 2

Alex Moulton
Bristol to Bradford-on-Avon

a lifetime in engineering

by Alex Moulton

Softbound, 208mm x 294mm x 20mm, 320 pages
ISBN: 978-1-872922-39-3
Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust
P.O. Box 31
Derby DE24 8BJ

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Over 300 photographs/illustrations

Reviewed by Doug Culy

This book is primarily a personal diary of a very technically inclined member of the British privileged class. Alex Moulton’s story of his life is told in 320 pages, including appendices, and involves four phases: growing up and getting educated, including a delayed doctorate in engineering; work at Bristol Engines, mostly on the Centaurus radial; work in the family business of elastomeric (rubber) suspensions for vehicles; designing and producing his own bicycle of unusual geometry, steam engines, and pastimes. The rubber and bicycle periods are the most lengthy, and make the most interesting design and industrial-history discussion. Only twenty pages cover the Bristol Centaurus period, and Moulton wound up working on his boss’s (Roy Fedden) car project some of the time during the Bristol and rubber phases. Sixty nine pages of technical notes taken during the educational times (formal and informal) in his life are included. This reviewer was hoping for more lessons learned in the Centaurus program.